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| Alternative name(s) | Description | Agile values | | | | | | Agile Manifesto Principles | Agile practices | Discussion | Links from this KA to other KAs | References | External links | Read in another language

Alternative name(s)

Project Time Management could be referred as Project Time Control, Project Time Frame, Project Schedule Management


Project time management is a part of project management. The environment of project management is extremely complex. Atkinson (1999) provided lists of factors which were believed to contribute to the project management success or failure. For example, Cost, time and quality are often referred to as The Iron Triangle.Atkinson (1999) considered that the project manager is the single point of responsibility for achieving the project objectives safely and within agreed time, cost and performance criteria. So, it is one of the biggest challenges for them to deliver projects on time. And the time schedule of the project life cycle is mainly caused by the collision of project as shown by Babu and Suresh (1996). In this case, the project manager must manage the project time effectively; and reasonable arrangements on project time is a key content of project management, it is used for ensuring the timely completion of the project, a rational allocation of resources, the best efficiency of the project.

Agile values

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Agile Manifesto Principles

1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software.
Akerele and Dixon (2014) notes that, early and frequent releasing of software is a hallmark of agile, in which the team keeps its software released to meet estimated scheduled time, using time management process to manage the work, during development. Karamitsos et al, (2010), argues that, PRINCE2 product base planning and rolling wave planning is related to this principle, because it can be used to develop the customer's requirement for early delivery of valuable product. Lotz (2013), revealed that, traditional project management approach cannot be related to this principle, in view of the fact that, the traditional method does not enable or allow early and continuous delivery of valuable product, as it method is mainly focused on finalising the full scope of the project with the customer in advance, and there is no opportunity for the customer to request for changes in the requirement and request adjustment on the product delivery time.

2. Welcome change in requirement, even at late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage.
Memon et al, 2014). Furthermore, PMI (2013), states that, administering change is a very vital aspect of the agile philosophy, and it is the opposite of the waterfall process, which resist change. This principle can be related to project time management, because agile project requires time management, in order to make changes at all times throughout the project, for late changes because time management enables agile project to estimate the time needed to ensure necessary changes are accomplished within the scheduled time, and it also create opportunity for late changes to be made as long as they lead to customers competitive advantage, even at late development. (Juricek, 2014).

3. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the According to PMI (2008), Project time management occurs by distinctly defining activities, sequencing of activities, estimating resources of activity, estimating durations of activity, developing schedule and controlling schedule. The activities listed above takes place within a couple of weeks to months with a preference to the shorter timescale based on project scope. In traditional project management, project tasks are broken down to smaller manageable units which are delivered frequently from a couple of weeks to months but not with a shorter timescale. This is because once all deliverables have been identified in a project, precedence activities are determined, critical path analysis is identified, top down estimates, bottom-up estimates, resource levelling, project baseline, project timeline and project timeline tolerance are fixed. However, when the project tasks exceed the project timeline the project board will decide on how to progress on the project. This may require additional resources assigned to the project scope or a cut down, thus these processes take a longer time (Hasenne & Hibner, 2011). Furthermore, OGC (2009) states the implementation of projects, the project plan, stage plan and work package may require more or less amounts of time on target completion dates.

4. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. According to PMI (2008) in Project Time Management, the scope of work for the project is clearly defined so that the team members understands the work that is required throughout the project. Members of the project team work together to accomplish the project deliverable. This principle does not support PRINCE 2 and traditional plan project management. Turley (2010) indicates that PRINCE2 has three levels of the project team namely the project board, project manager and team manager. The project board members do not execute task on the project daily. Involvement of the project board members could be limited by their time on the project board and the project board could be required when an exception has occurred (OGC, 2009). The project manager is responsible for the day to day management of the project while the team manager who creates the products (Turley, 2010). In traditional plan driven project management, presumably business people and developers will not even see each other and will not talk or work together on a daily basis. This is because there are a number of business analysts or architect between the business developers and developers on the project (Vaishampayan, 2014). Furthermore, business people are available only on certain days at specific times during the project.

5. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.
By providing the right environment and support, individuals feel empowered and motivated to undertake tasks, and commit to completing them on time. This aids teams and organisations in keeping to schedules, especially in project teams. Motivation and time management complement one another in that successful time management and the completion of tasks as a result, leads to motivated individuals, creating the right environments, support and trust (PMI, 2008)
6. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.
This principle relates to the PMI Project Time Management knowledge area, and in particular, to the Proposal Schedule Management, whereby the establishment of protocols, procedures, and certification for planning, developing, managing, implementing, and monitoring the project schedule occurs. The tools and techniques utilised for an effective and successful plan schedule management include expert judgement, analytical methods, and meetings. Members must conduct face-to-face meetings to establish the schedule plan. The meetings must include the project manager, project team personnel, projects sponsors, stakeholders, and any personnel with responsibilities revolving around schedule planning and implementation (PMI, 2013). Meeting face-to-face is the most effective and efficient way both in terms of sharing information and managing time. The pressure to get to the point and stay on track in face-to-face meetings is far greater than other methods of communication, like conference calls and the such (Time Management Ninja, 2012).

7. Working software is the primary measure of progress.

OGC (2009), points out that progress is a measure of the projects achievements of the objectives Progress can be monitored at work packages, stage and project level.Delivering a project using Prince2 occurs through a number of stages, they are initiation, project development, step boundary handling, stage regulate,regulating the stage, dealing with product delivery and project closure. All the above stages are used in measuring progress and viability of project throughout the life cycle of the project.

This principle does not support PRINCE2 as PRINCE2 is based on continuous business justification.

The key deliverables in the start-up phase are outlined business case, project brief, project product description and instigation stage strategy (OGC, 2009).

This principle does not support traditional plan driven project management approach (Vaishampayan, 2014).

The primary focus in traditional project management approach are documentation and project manager plan. 
8. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. This principle can be related to time management. Time can be a constraint, an effective way is adopted in order to manage time (Kerzner 2013:361). Project life cycle curve shows that a project has a limited life cycle. Project managers recorgnised it and it is used as a in aiding of managing of time in projects. (PMI, 2013) states that for a timely completion of a project there are processes and tools that are utilized. OGC (2009) reveals that effective time management reduces waste, increases delivery of service, improve management contingent activities, focus internally on doing things right while using effective management strategies. Quality theme of Prince 2 establishes continuous improvement, thus enables team members to correct any practice that will hinder them from maintaining a constant pace while delivering the project.

9.Continuous technical excellence and good design enhances agility. Yusuf et al.(1999) argues that the need to accomplish the competitive advantages of producing (or developing) in teams and without trade-offs between the well know traditional constraints of time cost and quality is fundamental to the agile disposition. However, in the traditional (PMI, APM or PRINCE2) Project Time management approach, time is one the constraints among which the project manager must make trade-off to deliver project objectives (Kerzner 2006; 681). Kerzner (2006) further suggests that delivering on schedule is generally regarded as one of the important success criteria from the customer’s perception.
Agile approach involves developing products in short time boxes called sprints and lasts no more than a month with the user closely involved. However, in the PMBok approach, the time to be spent in producing the deliverables and its quality standards are pre planned. If the customer requires a product of a higher technical standard after the product has been delivered, a new contract may have to be agreed increasing the overall time needed.

10. Simplicity — the art of maximizing the amount of work not done — is essential. The principle of simplicity as defined by agile could be said to be one the tools of time management as time is optimised by strictly doing only the essential work. PMI approach to time management consists of processes intended to ensure project completion in a timely fashion by defining activities, determining and recording relationships and estimating activity resources and durations. The status of activities is monitored using a project schedule model to enable updates to project progress and the management of changes to the schedule baseline. PMI (2013; 141). This is similar in features to the XP planning game where the duration of activities is estimated for each iteration. Similarly, in PMI approach, small projects might have scopes whose procedures are so strongly connected, that they can be considered as one process that can be accomplished over a reasonably short period, and somewhat mirroring the agile principle. The management of changes in control schedule process achieves somewhat the maximising of the amount of work not completed, which is similar to agile.

11. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organising teams.
PMI (2013) and ‍APM (2012) agree that time management is about estimating duration of activities, developing a model and using this to manage timescales. Although expert judgement is used in the process, the responsibility of delivering project within timescales lies with the project manager. With self-organising teams, the Scrum master in Scrum, or the monitor in XP has a similar role to optimise time. Cockburn and Highsmith (2001) however argue that this is more difficult with larger teams, as could be expected as a result of group dynamics, therefore needing more time for the group to develop. Self-organising teams take time which might make it difficult to estimate accurately times needed for activities, because the time needed for the team to develop (especially in large teams) (Hoda et al., 2012) might be ignored. PMBOK (2013) six processes of time management involve expert judgement in most of the processes. This means the level and diversity of skills in a non software project like construction, encourages a top down approach in managing the project schedule which will be comparatively rigid in contrast to self organising teams in an agile environment. However, in innovative or research projects involving a small number of top-level experts, self-organising teams might evolve even in a traditional waterfall setting, which helps synergise the team. The team might then benefit from using agile methods such as the pomodoro technique.

12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behaviour accordingly.
PMI Project Time Management processes include a monitoring and control process that allows the schedule to be updated and managed. This is similar to the agile approach where reflection by the team allows them to make better time estimates based on the previous sprint or iteration. However, this differs from the PMI approach as it involves every member of the team. The PMI approach can be made to be more agile by creating an atmosphere of joint ownership between project team members, setting a time for reflection during stages in the project and encouraging bottom up partipation and feedback. There is also a comparatively large amount documentation involved in the traditional waterfall approach to time management in comparison with the agile approach.


Other Agile principles
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Agile practices

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<Discuss the findings from previous sections. In particular, compare and contrast the traditional and agile approach to this KA.>

Links from this KA to other KAs

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Akerele. O and Dixon. M, (2014). Critical factors in agile continuous delivery process. Available at. https://thesai.org/Downloads/Volume5No3/Paper_19-Evaluating_the_Impact_of_Critical_Factors_in_Agile_Continuous_Delivery_Process_A_System_Dynamics_Approach.pdf [Accessed: 16 February, 2016].

Atkinson, R. (1999) Project management: cost, time and quality, two best guesses and a phenomenon, it’s time to accept other success criteria, International Journal of Project Management. 17(6) pp. 337-342. [Online] Available through: < http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0263786398000696 >. [Accessed:12 February, 2013].

Babu, A.J.G. & Suresh, N. (1996) Project management with time, cost, and quality considerations, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 88, Iss 2, pp. 320–327
Available through: < http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0377221794002029 >. [Accessed: 12 February, 2013].

Cockburn, A. and Highsmith, J. (2001) Agile software development: The people factor. Computer. (11), pp.131-133. [Online] Available at: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=963450 [Accessed:15 February, 2016].

Larson, E.W. & Gray, C.F. 2014, Project management: the managerial process, Internationalition of sixthition. edn, McGraw-Hill Education, New York, New York.

Hasenne & Hibner (2011). Overcoming Organisational Challenges related to Agile Project Management Adoption. Available at: http://www.diva-portal.se/smash/get/diva2:832569/FULLTEXT01.pdf [Accessed: 21 February, 2016].

Hoda, R., Noble, J. and Marshall, S. (2012) Developing a grounded theory to explain the practices of self-organizing Agile teams. Empirical Software Engineering, 17(6), pp.609-639. [Online] Available at: http://link.springer.com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/article/10.1007/s10664-011-9161-0#/page-1 [Accessed:15 February, 2016].

Juricek, J. (2014) ‘Agile Project Management Principles.’ Lecture Notes on Software Engineering. 2(2). [Online] Available at: http://www.lnse.org/papers/117-CS004.pdf [Accessed: 15 February, 2016].

Karamitsos, I., Apostolopoulos, C. & Bugami M. A. (2010). Benefits Management Process Complements Other Project Management Methodologies. Journal of Software Engineering and Applications. (6)8. September. pp. 839-844. [Online] Available at: http://www. doi:10.4236/jsea.2010.39097 [Accessed: 21 February, 2016].

Kerzner, H. (2013). Project management. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Krusche. S, et al, (2014) An agile process model based on product delivery. Available at https://www1.in.tum.de/lehrstuhl_1/research/paper/krusche2014rugby.pdf [Accessed: 16 February, 2016]

Lotz. M, (2013). Agile and Traditional method practice. [Online]. Available at http://www.seguetech.com/blog/2013/07/05/waterfall-vs-agile-right-development-methodology [Accessed: 20 February, 2016].

Memon, A. H., Raman, I. A., Ismail, I. & Zainun, N. Y. (2014) ‘Time Management Practice in Large Construction Projects.’ Colloquium of Humanities, Science and Engineering. [Online] Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280628184_Time_Management_Practices_in_Large_Construction_Projects [Accessed: 15 February, 2016].

Molesky. J, (2013). Continuous delivery of software. Available at. http://cmmiinstitute.com/sites/default/files/resource_asset/Continuous%20Delivery%20of%20Software.pdf (Accessed: 16 February, 2016).

Paasivaara, M., Durasiewicz, S. and Lassenius, C., (2008) Using scrum in a globally distributed project: a case study. Software Process: Improvement and Practice, 13(6) pp.527-544. [Online] Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/doi/10.1002/spip.402/epdf [Accessed : 21 Feb, 2016]

PMI (2008) A guide to the project management body of knowledge – PMBoK. 4th edn. Upper Daryby: Project Management Institute.

PMI (2013) A Guide to Project Management Body of Knowledge. 5th edn. Pennsylvania: Project Management Institute Inc.

PMI. (2013) Managing change in organizations: A practice guide. Newtown Square: Project Management Institute.

PMI, (2015). Continuous delivery using agile. [Online]. Available at. http://www.pmibangalorechapter.in/index.php/continuous-integration-continuous-delivery-using-agile (Accessed:16 February, 2016)

Office of Government Commerce (OGC) (2009) Managing Successful Projects with PRINCE2TM. London: The Stationary Office

Kerzner, H. (2006) Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling and Controlling. 9th edn. New Jersey: John Wiley and Son, Inc. pp. 58-60,681-685.

Time Management Ninja, (2012). 5 Reasons Why Meeting Face-to-Face Is Best. [online] Available at: https://timemanagementninja.com/2012/10/5-reasons-why-meeting-face-to-face-is-best/ [Accessed 24 Feb. 2016].

Turley, F. (2010). The PRINCE2 Foundation Training Manual: A Practical Approach to Passing the PRINCE2 Foundation Exam. Available at: http://1064366374.rsc.cdn77.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/PRINCE2-Manual.pdf [Accessed: 21 February, 2016].


Yusuf, Y.Y., Sarhadi, M. and Gunasekaran, A. (1999) Agile manufacturing: The drivers, concepts and attributes. International Journal of production economics, 62(1), pp.33-43 [Online] Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/science/article/pii/S0925527398002199 [Accessed: 17 February, 2016].

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External links

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Read in another language

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Motivation and time management complement one another in that successful time management and the completion of tasks as a result, leads to motivated individuals, creating the right environments, support and trust.