Corexcel
Corexcel

| Alternative name(s) | Description | ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Agile values‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ | ‍‍‍‍ | Agile Manifesto Principles | Other Agile Principles | Agile practices | Discussion | Links from this KA to other KAs | ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍References‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ | ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍External links‍‍‍‍‍‍‍

Alternative name(s)

‍Quality risk management
Total quality management (Littlefield, 2012)

Description

According to PMBOK, Project Quality Management for a performing organisation is the set of procedures and the undertakings that will require a project to meet its objectives, by having quality policies, objectives and responsibilities.
Project quality management includes the processes that determine quality policies‍, aims‍, and duties (Kerzner,2009).

Quality Planning
Quality plan defines with an achievable goals and it will help and find the objectives, plan to achieve the objectives. The important criteria are risk assessment, proper documentation. First thing is initially identify the risk and to find the proper solution to it which is obstructing to achieve the goals.

Quality Assurance
Quality assurance is a process where quality assurance will verify whether quality plan progress in a correct way or not and by using both the methods qualitative and quantitative, it can achieve enhanced quality of the product with customer demands.

Quality Control
Quality control is a process where it measures the quality standards of the product. This includes risk assessment also where it finds problems at all stages and producing proper solutions to it to achieve the goals. Quality control and quality assurance are inter related with each other because both occur at start and end of the problem. Quality assurance occurs at the beginning and quality control at the end. (Warner, 2010).
Agile process provides quality assurance and control and also builds quality into the product through a combination of practices from agile project monitoring and agile project execution.

Quality Monitoring
Agile gives opportunities to what is going on in a project and offers effective opportunity to intervene. Agile monitoring technique tracks what software has been incrementally delivered. Agile Monitoring comes in different forms which are frequent delivery, colocation, daily team meeting and time box review meeting

‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Agile values‍‍‍‍‍‍‍

Communication: For a project to be successful, Quality effort depends on concentrating on the specific objectives and the capability to effectively communicate to both the internal and external customers. To address quality issues, communication plays a vital role in the organisation.‍

Feedback is another XP value that is related to project Quality Management. By having regular Feedback from the client, an organisation can improve the quality of the product/service using the information that has been provided by the customers.

Commitment is an Scrum value that closely associates with the Quality management. in order for the product development team to be deliver a quality product, everyone has to be committed to the the work meaning, the development team needs to giver their full potential to make a quality product.

Individual and Interactions (Agile Value). if no communication problems exists between the development team and the client, then the team can perform very well with the client to make a quality product.

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Agile Manifesto Principles




  1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software. Project quality management tells us the activities that are needed to determine and attain project quality. This principle can be related to quality management as it focuses on customer satisfaction and continuously delivering satisfactory goods that meet requirements of the customer. This principle also relates to this knowledge area in that customers can check and decide on changes or improvements that need to be made to adapt to the quality they want. According to Philip Crosby quality is defined as ‘conformance to requirements’ and if requirement are met customers will be satisfied. He also states that the system of implementing quality is by prevention and not inspection. Timely and constant delivery of goods also ensure quality because when goods are defective or unsatisfactory changes can be made early in order to make goods satisfactory to the customer. Priority will be given to quality and changes will be implemented on time because the supplier will not want goods to be returned as there is financial and perception cost associated. Early and continuous delivery of goods builds trust and can also be used to gather feedback and used as a measure for progress.
  2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage. Agile process also works under the assumption that final scope can be negotiated with the customer. This aligns agile to quality management in that projects are carried out or goods are produces according to specifications and requirements of the sponsors/customers. And success is measured with products meeting customer’s standards. When a product is being developed, the customer can realise that due to competition their requirements need to change. For example technology companies producing phone or television many suddenly realise that their competitors have come out with products with new features. They may need to change their specifications to beat their competitors. Agile principle can accommodate these changes any time in the process. Change happens and it is impossible to pre-empt what change can happen in future and therefore difficult to have a suitable solution ready. Agile process expects change.
  3. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. When products are delivered frequently and at short time scale, time is effectively managed. Focus will be on delivering products to the required standard and less time is spent on planning and producing documents. It also enables the product to be updated or upgraded quicker because it encourages product development. This principle aligns with Juran’s theory on quality improvement which according to Rose (2005) states that quality improvement depends on control and breakthrough. Control is about frequently delivering a process without variation and breakthrough is implementing changes after studying the process that was delivered. The more frequently good are delivered the more frequently customers can assess and give their feedback on the improvement and changes that are required which can give the supplier the breakthrough to producing a perfect product.
  4. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project.This principle can be related to quality management where quality is a mind-set. In order for your customers to perceive your product or service as high quality, it must start with people working together from the start of the project on a daily basis to produce a high quality product for its customers. Each employee must understand both the process and the philosophy behind the product or service in order to consistently meet the customer’s expectations. Getting the employees to adopt a quality mind-set is the real key to producing high quality products and services. Employees must feel a sense of ownership. That is, they must feel responsible for the outcome of anything connected with the product or service. One always takes better care of something that they own as opposed to something that they do not. With ownership, employees will feel a sense of pride on learing that their product or service has the highest reputation in the market place. To instil a sense of ownership, employees must feel that they play an important role in the success of the product on a daily basis. This is done through working together as a teamwork.

  5. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.This principle relates to total quality management (TQM) which is a management technique used to empower and train employees. This technique is built around its employees. TQM in generally used in organization to help in the continuous improvement of quality by empowering individuals and teams in the organisation with the neessary support they need to deliver quality and make the right decision.
  6. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation. One of the most comments made by employee complaints is lack of communication/information; this principle seeks to rectify that problem. Communication and reporting within a quality management environment it’s an essential components for any effective quality management system. Poor communications will prove detrimental to any management system. Recognizing the importance of communication, the organization should establish and maintain procedures for internal and external communications with regard to its QMS.
  7. Working software is the primary measure of progress. Project as defined by PMI is a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique, product, service or result. The outcome of a project to an extent determines whether or not the project is successful. Previously project was seen as successful if it is delivered on time, within budget or within scope. However, there had been situations where a project meets all the above conditions and still not considered a success because it failed to meet the requirement of the sponsors or users. In such situations the output of the project is said to lack quality – the totality of features and characteristics of a product or services that bears on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs (ISO Definition). A project is said to be successful if it is able to meet the requirements for which the project is being undertaken and the result of the evaluation between requirements and the project outcome is quality which is measured by end users satisfaction. The lesson learnt from a such a successful projects can then be applied to future projects thus ensuring their progress to success.
  8. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. The delivery of project involves the interaction of several elements with the stakeholders including the project sponsors, project team and end users. One of the elements involved is Time. However improving the speed of delivery of a project comes with additional burden in the form of changes to quality and cost. Together, quality, cost and time form what is known as the triple constraint of project management with each constraint corresponding to the vertices of a triangle. The three constraint are interdependent, hence changes in one of the constraint automatically leads to a change in the other two constraints. For example, increasing the quality will likely lead to an increase in the cost of the project and the possibility of the project taking longer. Likewise improving the speed of the project delivery will likely lead to an increase in cost or a reduction in quality. As a result, to ensure and enhance project delivery, a balance between the triple constraint of time, cost and quality is paramount.
  9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility. In the earliest 20th century, quality was seen basically as separating good from bad i. e. inspection. However, due to the work of gurus like W. Edwards Deming, Joseph M Juran and Philip B. Crosby inspection as a means of quality has evolved into quality control and quality assurance. Quality assurance is the planned systematic quality activity to ensure that the project will employ all the processes needed to meet requirement of the stakeholder while quality control is the monitoring of the project results to determine if they are in compliance with relevant quality standards ad identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance (Rose, 2005).The interaction of both quality assurance and quality control ensures the continuous improvement of the project process right from the gathering and prioritisation of stakeholder’s requirement to the deliverance of the project thus guaranteeing high quality in products, services and objectives.
  10. Simplicity — the art of maximizing the amount of work not done — is essential.
    For quality to be accepted a number of requirements and expectations are evident. TQM and Quality assurance are used in order to satisfy the needs. The use of these processes provides an efficient approach to minimising the number of defects or errors throughout and leading towards continuous improvement whereby only the work that is required is undertaken which maximises the amount of work not done. The principle ensures that stakeholder requirements are the driving force and criteria to the end deliverable.The use of regular checks, testing, strive for producing quality from the start ensures and monitoring ensures, for example, the production of a product meets the requirements through all stages and is corrected without realising the problems later on in the project which would have lead to unnecessary work being completed.
  11. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.
    Self organising teams are difficult to come by. There is a high risk and level of responsibility that must be undertaken but this responsibility leads to empowerment and thus good requirements and designs are drawn upon. A self organising team follows the TQM principle that everyone is responsible for providing exceptional quality. These teams generally provide the best architects and draw up designs and requirements as they continuously adapt to the stakeholder requirements and provide feedback whilst having a resilient mentality to changes.

    Hackman provides a matrix that distinguishes the four levels of self organising teams in Figure 1 . These teams take on their own responsibilities to ensure the quality satisfy's the needs and have a greater relationship with the project than a team led by management as empowerment is evident.
    AuthorityMatrix_figure1.png
    Authority Matrix

    Figure 1. Authority Matrix (Hackman, 2002)

  12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.
    There are various stages through the project. Stage gates allow the teams to reflect on the project and ensure that relevant criteria have been met before proceeding into the next stages. This gives the opportunity to make any changes earlier on in the project as changes further down the timescale supplement a higher risk. In terms of teams, this principle of TQM ensures that there is continuous improvement and encourages teamwork by allowing time for reflection and behaviors to be adjusted in order to provide a high quality deliverable that satisfy's the needs.

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Other Agile Principles

‍Project quality plan is not just focus on the quality of project products or service, it also emphasize the process to achieve the expected results. Scrum is an effective agile approach to improve process quality for all size of projects. The principles includes being transparent and open, deliver early and regularly, have empowered, cross-functional teams (Beck, 2010). A transparent and opened communication channel is necessary for quality planning and audit. It need to set clear responsibility and accountability for managing key activities and carry out transparent and structured audit with evidence. The areas where concerns are raised should also be taken into audit process. The project product can be delivered regularly and make changes according to client’s feedback in order to improve product quality. The cross-functional teams will evaluate the product backlog items and form a sprint backlog before each iteration, if problems arising from this process then the scrum master of each team will solve them and ensure quality iteration going smoothly (Karhunen, 2009).‍

Agile practices

‍Each successful scrum implementation requires the capability of sponsor and involvement of middle management (Beck, 2010). The sponsor can be the project manager or departmental manager and will mainly be responsible for prioritizing and deciding on necessary improvements and difficult changes. The sponsor also need to support the team to carry out scrum implementation. In auditing and reviewing process, the sponsor need to establish procedures-formal statement of how activities should be undertaken and the team will go on with quality review iteration based on the instruction.
Refactoring is a practice which adapts codes that exists and allows meeting of current needs. It can be used to increase performance of products or to add new functionality. Team members need to develop refactoring skills so that they can update code efficiently, and assure quality of the new software.


Discussion

Compared with traditional quality assurance techniques, agile quality assurance techniques are no more reporting based and rely less on inspection methods because they are built-in daily activities by team (Bhasin, 2012). For example, in waterfall developing process, quality and stability are measured and addressed in the later stage of the project, which will arise more cost to fix. ‍However, agile requires smaller builds to enable functionality be presented to customers early and in a fast-paced, iterative process.

Links from this KA to other KAs

‍Quality management is a process of designing and producing the products and the services very effectively and economically where as, risk management is a process where identifying and addressing the potential risks which obstructing the achievable goals. Quality management is a effective and efficiency process where effective comes into play by delivering the products which meets the customer demands and efficiency process without wasting any resources information. Risk management is a process where addressing the potential risks and results in high variance i.e leads to less uniformity in products (Perkins,2011)‍. Continuous improvement can also help project management to get desired quality in the required time. Feedback from customers and suppliers can also help to improve project quality.
Project Initiation Agile methods acknowledges that some work is required to be done upfront which is required to ensure project success. Project initiation includes work done before coding begins, project initiation is timed boxed and the agile team do the work.

‍‍‍‍‍‍‍References‍‍‍‍‍‍‍

Beck, P. (2010) 7 practices for the effective implementation of Scrum
[Online] Available at:<http://p-a-m.org/2010/01/119/ > [Accessed 28/2/2013]

Bhasin, S. (2012) Quality Assurance in Agile: A Study towards Achieving Excellence. pp 64-67
[Online] Available at:
<http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/icp.jsp?arnumber=6170012#article> [Accessed 28/2/2013]

Hackman, R. J., 2002. Leading Teams: Setting the stage for great performances. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing .

Karhunen, J. (2009) Scrum Quality Management: an Empirical Study
[Online] Available at:
<http://publications.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/9997/Karhunen.Jenna-Riia.pdf?sequence=2 > [Accessed 28/2/2013]

Kerzner,H .(2009) Project Management. A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling. 10th ed. London: John Wiley & Sons

Littlefield, M. (2012) Quality risk management
[Online] Available at:
<http://blog.lnsresearch.com/blog/bid/126119/Quality-Risk-Management-A-New-Perspective
  • [Accessed 28/2/2013]

Perkins, E. (2011) Linking Quality Management and Risk Management [Online] Available at:
http://www.qualitydigest.com/inside/quality-insider-column/linking-quality-management-and-risk-management.html [Accessed 26/02/2013]

Warner,J .(2010), The Basics of Project Quality Management. [Online] Available at :
<http://blogs.attask.com/blog/project-management-success/the-basics-of-project-quality-management> [Accessed 25/02/13]

Thomas, S. (2008) Agile Quality Management [Online] Available at :
http://itsadeliverything.com/agile-quality-management [Accessed 19/02/15]

Quality Software with Agile teams [online ] Available at:
http://www.benlinders.com/2012/quality-software-with-agile-teams/[ Accessed 19/02/15]

Rose, K.H. (2005) Project Quality Maagement: Why, What and How. Fort Lauderdale: J. Rose Publishing, Inc.

Hall, Jay.The Team Effectiveness Survey.



‍‍‍‍‍‍‍External links‍‍‍‍‍‍‍

http://www.apm.org.uk/category/bok-site-bok-term-taxonomy/quality-management.... Quality Management by APM
http://www.brighthubpm.com/certification/19272-what-pmbok-says-about-quality-management/ ......PMBOK approach to project quality management


In the earliest 20th century, quality was seen basically as separating good from bad i. e. inspection. However, due to the work of gurus like W. Edwards Deming, Joseph M Juran and Philip B. Crosby inspection as a means of quality has evolved into quality control and quality assurance. Quality assurance is the planned systematic quality activity to ensure that the project will employ all the processes needed to meet requirement of the stakeholder while quality control is the monitoring of the project results to determine if they are in compliance with relevant quality standards ad identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance.
The interaction of both quality assurance and quality control ensures the continuous improvement of the project process right from the gathering and prioritisation of stakeholder’s requirement to the deliverance of the project thus guaranteeing high quality in products, services and objectives.