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Project-Integration-Management.gif
Source: PMstudy - http://pmstudy.com/blog/?p=334
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| | Alternative name(s) | Description | Agile values | | ‍‍‍‍ | Agile Manifesto principles | ‍‍‍‍‍Agile practices‍‍‍‍‍ | Discussion | Links from this KA to other KAs | References |

Alternative name(s)

Assimilation (Thesaurus, 2013).
Combination (Thesaurus, 2013).

Description

“The processes and activities needed to integrate the various elements of project management, which are identified, defined, combined, unified, and coordinated within the Project Management Process Groups.” (PMBOK Guide Third Edition, 2004)

What this description tell us is that project integration management is all about how each of the project management areas such as scope, time, cost, quality, etc., as well as the stages of a project such as initiating, planning, executing, etc., are brought together to ensure project success.

Other definition of integration is the process required to ensure that elements of projects ‍‍‍‍‍are coordinated properly, Including‍‍‍‍‍ project plan, project execution, and project change control. (Kirsilä et al, 2007).
Figure 1 at the right side of the page represent the main components of Project Integration Management (PMstudy, 2013)

Agile values


‍‍‍‍‍Agile Manifesto (2001)‍‍‍‍‍
  • Individuals and interactions over processes and tools - Integration management involves multiple elements and areas used in projects, such as risk management, quality management, cost management. The process of integrating these areas and managing them all together require effective communications between project manager and project team. Project deliverables are the outcome of effectively integrated and communicated processes.
  • Customer collaboration over contract negotiation - C‍‍‍‍‍ollaborating and communicating with customer is essential to ensure that integration of the major themes of a project can happen seamlessly with little problems as areas such as the quality expectations and scope are decided by the customer and if these are incorrect then that would lead to problems during integration‍‍‍‍‍
  • Responding to change over following plan - Effective change management is needed to ensure effective integration management and this is why this value is applicable to project integration management. If changes to any of the earlier described themes of integration management are not addressed in the correct manner then the project will suffer. One cannot simply expect everything to go according to plan therefore effective change control will lead to effective integration management.

Scrum
  • Openness - Scrum encourages openness and transparency within the project. The more transparent the project environment is the more easier it would be to integrate the different areas of scope, quality, cost,etc.

XP
  • Communication - Effective communication of the project's scope, cost, quality requirements etc., can be extremely beneficial to this knowledge area. Clear communication regarding the earlier mentioned themes can speed up the process of integration as each theme is clearly communicated throughout the project environment.

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Agile Manifesto principles




  1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software. As part of integration management process, stakeholders are involved early in the project management process so that they can check product and process so as to identify problems and solutions put in place early. In agile, the customer is on hand at all times and available for answering questions. For instance, a team developing a financial management system for an organization will include a financial personnel from the organisation. Both the knowledge area and the principle align in that they both focus on customer satisfaction and makes it a high priority. Valuable product or process will be delivered continuously and early if the principle is applied in this knowledge area.
  2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer's competitive advantage.Integration management involves the process of managing change, making tradeoffs of competing demands and objectives to meet needs and requirements of the project. This principle of agile supports this knowledge area because it accommodates all these process at any stage of development. It will help business grow by supporting changes that need to be made for the customer to have a competitive advantage even at the later stages of project development
  3. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. This principle relates to the integration management because in order to deliver frequently within a short time scale resources need to be properly allocated and interdependencies managedand all the aspects of the project have to be properly coordinated. Integration management is the process that ensures that activities required for coordinating all project activities are in place to ensure working software within a short time scale.It also involves processes that can reduce project time and cost.
  4. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project.This is a crucial part in agile, particularly since it doesn’t originate naturally to most individuals. There is a need to work in an organize manner as this minimizes the duration and effort required by each integration management episode and to be able to deliver at any time a product version suitable for release. A location that is between the business people and developers is generally the ideal way to handle working together. Working through areas like version control tools, team policies and conventions, and tools exactly designed to help attain continuous integration management is helpful in this principle. Using also communication tools for remote workers helps both sides in a better way to understand each other and leads to more productive work.
  5. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.As relates to agile project integration management there is no place for micromanaging in agile project management. It is important for teams to be self-directed and self-dependent. Making sure that in integration a proper and organised team is in place. People that can be trusted to complete the project objectives or integration are like gold to any organisation. This has a huge implication if not done properly. During integration it’s important to have people that are so passionate about what they are developing or their job. Eradicated unskilled personnel’s in integration is a way forward as keeping them can have negative impact on the project success. Team members given respect for the work they do does empower the team and hence the team have supportive culture. In integration the environment, the working space and the right equipment to do the work is important.
  6. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.In integration having the answer you need in a short time is highly required and it’s needed in this process. This is another important reason why working on any integration in the same location or better still a visual working with same time hours is crucial in agile project management. As teams work together in the same location it’s much easy to raise a question, give valued suggestions and have a better communication. This makes the process flow in integration. While doing integration it is not enough to make data accessible in a way that is passive. This information should rather be well directed to the main people or audience. There is a serious need to have an open communication in integration process. One should not expect vagarious communication from external but must support communication from the team members within. Using channels like phone, video is better than writing information on paper, emails. Having communication in this manner does speed up the integration process and results are great.
  7. Working software is the primary measure of progress.The working software principle of agile is all about delivering on the project goals irrespective of the number of iterations, interfaces or documentations we have in in progress. The only thing that matters is being able to deliver a working software. This principle has a direct relationship and a strong support with the knowledge area under consideration, project integration management. Project integration management is a series of processes required to ensure that project constituents are synchronised properly to achieve project goals. Project integration management ensures that all the activities necessary to deliver a project are properly performed. This knowledge area supports the working software principle in the sense that it is the means by which working software are developed. A software is developed by a lot of activities for example in scrum developing a software entails requirement refinement, product backlog, sprint planning meeting, sprints, sprint backlogs, sprint review meetings and sprint retrospective. Project integration management ensures all those activities are harmonised to produce one thing that really matters in terms of performance of the project team and satisfying the customer – a working software.
  8. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.This principle is all about sustainable pace. It is actually difficult to find any form of relationship (except one) between this principle and the knowledge area of project integration management because this agile principle is all about people involved in the delivery of the project working together to the point where they develop a share commitment to satisfying the requirement of the customers. On the other hand, project integration management is more about the coordination of all the process that is involve in the satisfaction of the customer requirement. In summary this agile principle is all about people in project management while the knowledge area is about the processes in project management. The only relationship between the two is that both are crucial in satisfying the requirement of the customer.
  9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.The appropriate kind of staff with the appropriate kind of skills results in the creation of an excellent result – or technical excellence – which is basically the whole point of this principles. Achieving technical excellence has a lot of benefits to the project systems like delivery of project without defects and flexibility of the project system to accommodate changes as late as possible. The knowledge area ensures that all the components of a project systems are properly coordinated leading to technical excellence. In this regards both the principle and the project integration management knowledge area are strongly related. However, project integration management ensures the coordination of components by making trade-off between competing or alternative objectives to achieve technical excellence. In that regards both the principles and knowledge area are unrelated because the principle promote technical excellence by continuous attention and good design and not by trade off.
  10. Simplicity — the art of maximizing the amount of work not done — is essential.
    Simplicity refers to doing only the work that is required. The process of integration management involves the development of a scope statement.It then integrates what is developed in the scope so a list of what is to be done and what is not to be included is derived and this list will only the work involved in the project. This principle supports the KA and guides the practice of scope management as illustrated in the PMBOK.
  11. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.
    An agile approach to integration management promotes integration throughout the project lifecycle and not just at stages. This level of involvement throughout the project helps to bring out the best architects, requirements and designs as self- organizing teams have a involvement throughout therefore they are able to gain a further insight into the project requirements and build upon experiences and skills due to a higher motivation level than regular teams as a result of empowerment. This supports the KA as self-organizing teams are integrated into areas of the project that regular teams would not be therefore they can extract better requirements.
  12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.
    Monitoring and controlling is a very important part of integration management that must be closely managed in order to fulfil the requirements. This principle supports the KA by ensuring that requests for changes are managed closely so that there is no compromisation in the project as a result of changes happening and not fully accepted. The project team is vital to ensuring the that change is overseen throughout including the implementation which is why they regularly check and reflect on the changes made or requested to be made so that adjustments can be made that will be more effective towards fulfilling requirements. This is supported in PRINCE2 whereby monitoring and controlling are essential to bringing about change.

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Other Agile Principles

Incremental Change in any element of the project (Schedule-Cost-Scope-Risk management) effects the overall result of the process because all elements are dependent on each other. Managing and responding to change in a way that project elements remain balanced is essential. Quality aspect is mainly involved with scope management, but it does integrate with all the project elements throughout the project life cycle. Learning from failure is analysing why previous projects went over budget or behind schedule, or why risk management wasn't managed effectively. Registering all lessons learned in lessons learned log ensures that future projects integrate ore seamlessly


‍‍‍‍‍Agile practices‍‍‍‍‍

‍‍‍‍‍ Development of the project plan is a part of project integration management ‍‍‍‍‍and with this in mind, Planning Game is an agile practice that can be related to project integration management as this practice provides clear, long-term and short-term goals through continuous planning exercises carried out throughout the project's lifecycle

Continuous Integration is another practice that is closely linked to project integration management ‍‍‍‍‍as it ensures integration at various points throughout the project, which leads to new findings being integrated and not missed.‍‍‍‍‍. An area of project integration management involves change management and this practice ensures that unit and acceptance tests are also performed every time a change is made, making sure that any changes are fully functional as early as possible

Discussion

‍‍‍‍‍Traditionally a project plan is created and owned by the project manager, however the agile approach is one that promotes planning exercises done iteratively, which promotes integration throughout the life of project and not just at project initiation. . Changes within a project are also handled differently in agile. The product backlog, which is managed by the customer or product owner, is how change is managed and this means that the change control process is integrated into the daily routine of agile teams.‍‍‍‍‍

Links from this KA to other KAs

Change Management can be related to project integration management as integrated change control is an area that makes up project integration management

References


PMstudy. 2013. Project Integration Management. [ONLINE] Available at: http://pmstudy.com/blog/?p=334. [Accessed 10 April 13].

Agile Manifesto (2001). Principles Behind the Agile Manifesto. Available at: http://agilemanifesto.org/iso/en/principles.html[Accessed on: 08/02/13]

Change management. 2013. Change management. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-integrating-cm-pm.htm. [Accessed 14 March 13].


Kirsilä, J. Hellström, M. Wikström, K. 2007. Integration as a project management concept: A study of the commissioning process in industrial deliveries. International Journal of Project Management , [Online]. Volume 25 issue 7, 714-721. Available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0263786307000440 [Accessed 14 March 2013].

Project Management Institution (PMI), 2004. A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge [pdf] Available at: <http://users.encs.concordia.ca/~hammad/INSE6230/PMBOK3rdEnglish.pdf> [Accessed 14 March 2013].


‍‍‍‍‍The Saurus (2013) Integration Synonyms.‍‍‍‍‍ Available at: http://thesaurus.com/browse/integration?s=t [Accessed 14 March, 2013].


External links

http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-pm-cm.htm

http://www.pmhut.com/project-integration-management