‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Expectation Management‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ okoij.jpg‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍


‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Expectations can be controllable according to Cadle and Yeats (2001) which is divided into long-term and short-term. The examples of long -term controllable expectation include innovation in product and services, marketing and quality standards. While the short term include sale promises, marketing, the nature of your product and service and first impression (Cadle and Yeats,2001).However, expectation are the primary measure of a product success and drive that determines all stakeholders action and decision( David,2005). ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Therefore, product and service quality justifies how customers’ expectation is been managed in long or short- term project.

Agile values

The agile value identified, which is related to expectation management, include Scrum and XP values. The XP values, which enables controlling, and monitoring of stakeholders expectation in product development in any iteration process include communication, simplicity, respect and feedback. However, communication and effective feedback must enable ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍product owner to manage customer's expectation. This entails that sometimes the client’s expectation might be more or less what the project requires. Nevertheless, effective communication and feedbacks from the customer and user involvement enables effective refactoring and continuous integration throughout the iteration process. Simplicity and respect helps the project team to understand customer's expectation through user stories and pair programming. The expectation of the customer might be overestimated, but through capturing of user stories and customer involvement, the expectations of customers can be effectively managed. On the other hand, scrum value that is important to expectation management includes commitment, focus, openness and courage. This value enables the project team to capture the customer's expectation effectively. This is because these values emerge as people participate in scrum‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍.Irrespective of the customers’ expectations ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍openness and courage will enable the scrum team to capture the customers requirement through their expectation and the user stories has made it simple to control and involve the customer throughout the iteration process.‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍

Agile ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍principle‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍

‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍The agile principles identified ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍in this pape‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍r include agile manifesto principles, complex adaptive system and XP. The agile manifesto principle as explained (Beck,2005 ) entails that its highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of the product. In addition, the customers and developers must work together daily throughout the project duration and its process must be simple .However, expectation management enables framework to assist the stakeholder's expectations. Expectation management enables setting, monitoring and influencing expectation of the customer. However, XP principles are good for managing expectation it enables incremental change, quality of work, humanity and learning from failure . This is because in agile management user stories is used to capture the customer's requirement and the customer is involve throughout the project iteration. This means that the customer will be involved in incremental changes, quality management and lessons will be learn from previous iteration. Furthermore, this shows that the customer's expectation will be effectively monitored and controlled throughout the project iteration. Finally, complex adaptive system limits up-front planning, although it enables adaptability to changing conditions. This will help the project team to manage the assumption of the customers effectively by relying on collective ability in continuous integrations.‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍

Agile practices

The agile practices identified that are ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍related‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ to expectation management include ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Scrum and XP‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍. The XP practices that is crucial to expectation management include user stories, customer on site, refactoring and continuous integration. User stories helps in capturing customer expectation in order to manage this expectation throughout the project cycle. ( Humpreys et al,2003) explains that managing users expectations has been in reliance on documenting the customer's specification. This means that user stories and customer on site will aid expectation management because the customer is involved from the first iteration until final iteration. However, ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍refactoring and continuous integration will help in managing expectation of the stakeholders towards the project goal or objective‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍. ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍On the other hand, Scrum, which is, anchored to expectation management product owner, team and scrum master this stakeholders involvement in the product development makes managing the customers expectation more effectively.‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ In addition, ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Scrum assumes that system development process is an unpredictable, complicated process, which can roughly be described as an overall progression.‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ This simply explains that the project team in each iteration can easily control good or bad expectation of the customer.


‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍This discussion of traditional and agile project management approach will be anchored on defining, planning, executing and commissioning a project.In traditional approach in defining stage of a project customer’s objective is not well understand and the project team has little or no power in organisation structure and the user is not involve throughout the project duration. On the other hand, agile utilise user involvement throughout the iteration process by using user stories to manage, monitor and control client’s expectation throughout the project life cycle. However, traditional approach plan, control and monitor each phase of the project and do not involve the customer throughout the project iterations managing the expectation of the customer might be difficult in traditional approach of project management. Although, most agile project management approach is unsustainable as result of ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍poor relationship‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ of on-site customers role for long period; which makes it difficult for complex project where the expectation of the customer will be high as result of the nature of the project.‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍ ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍The agile approach enables human and social- autonomy to aid job satisfactions, productivity, and customer satisfaction when the user is involve throughout the project iteration. Therefore, agile approach might be suitable for project like information system project where the user is highly needed to be involved; while traditional approach might be suitable to construction project as result of ability to plan and control each construction.‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍

Links from this KA to other KAs

The knowledge areas related to expectation management identified in this report include project stakeholders’ management and requirement management.
However, in projects, teams have different expectation from different customer, and customers may have different expectation from their key stakeholders and these calls for effective control and management of the either expectations. In addition, requirement management is anchored on expectation management. This means that even when the requirement is bad or moderate user involvement in agile could be used to capture and monitor customer requirement in each iteration.


Beck,K. (2005) Extreme programming explained embrace change.2nd edition,UK:Addison-Wesley
Cadle., J and Yeates.D (2005) Project Management for Information Systems.3rd edition,New York: Prentice Hall
‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍Cubric,M.(2013) Introduction to Agile Software Development (XP) [Powerpointslide]7BSP1018. University of Hertfordshire. [Assessed:24 February,2013]‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍
David.,L. (2005) Expectation Management: A ''Gateway Key'' To Project Success-Client Satisfaction [Online] available at: www.northalabamapmi.org [Accessed: 23 February,2013]
Humphreys.P, Mathew., J and Kumarawary,M,(2003) Pre-construction project partnering: from adverbial to collaborative relationship [Online] ‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍available at: http://www.emeraldinsight.com [Accessed: 24 February,2013].‍‍‍‍‍‍‍‍

External links

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