Alternative name(s)
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http://www.fotosearch.com/photos-images/creativity.html#comp.asp?recid=59880030&xtra�5� Fotosearch.com [Accessed by: 23th February 2013]
- Inspiration (Thesaurus.com, 2013).
- Innovation (Thesaurus.com, 2013).
- inventiveness (Thesaurus.com, 2013).

Description


According to Sternberg (1998), creativity could be defined as a process of creating novel and useful products, which involves both ideas and tangible objects. He also indicated that the Creativity includes two main features of originality and usefulness. Originality here can be understood as a unique and innovative characteristic, and the usefulness implicates that the outcome of the Creativity can be valuable, adoptive, appropriate or significant (Sternberg, 1998: 450). However, Gurteen (1998) insisted that the Creativity just concerns with generating new ideas, and innovation is the channel to turn those ideas into action. He also suggested that developing brainstorming sessions can be a good way to stimulate creativities, and related creative activities should be implemented throughout the wholeorganisation, not just in the Research and Development department (Gurteen, 1998).

Agile values

Agile values listed below are from the Agile Manifesto (2001).
  • Individuals and interactions over processes and tools - Team communication and interactions produce an adequate environment to innovate and be more creative especially for Research and Development projects (R&D). Sharing knowledge, tasks, update and communicate tasks with team members, are creativity factors.
  • Customer collaboration over contract negotiation - Collaboration with customer helps to develop a product without defects if there is constant communication with the customer. Therefore, the chance for being more creative when working with customer side by side, solve issues, and create values (lack of communication with customer and failure to capture customer's requirements leads to undesired defects and maybe project failure).
  • Responding to change over following plan - Maximise change control when receiving feedback after each stage, implement change, and record it in lessons learned in order to implement more creativity in future products.

XP Values:
Communication - Communication between project teams, and other stakeholders is essential to innovate and develop products.

Feedback - The result of communicating and creation. Feedback may be positive or negative according to those results. Communication, feedback, and innovation are main components in creativity process or cycle.

Agile principles

Incremental change (flow) a process where constant renewal and change occur. Managers, researchers need to research for innovation for the organisation. New working environment and changes throughout projects encourage the organisation for new ideas and more creativity (Andriopoulos and Dawson, 2009). Second agile principle is Quality, key success factor here is applying internal quality assurance during projects, applying quality by individuals, departments, enhances creativity and deliver successful outcome (European University Association, 2009). Finally, Learning from failure, a principle that can be critical when developing a product, or a software for example. Developers need to create their lessons learned log, store it, and refer to it when developing new software. This approach enables them to avoid previous mistakes and create something new in the software or product.

Agile practices


Scrum
Sprint retrospective-This practice requires team reflection, including identifying what the team has done well during the sprint planning and how to make continuous improvement in next sprint. In this way, creativity ideas are expected to be created and heard from the team members, as they are part of the project team who know exactly the project status. In a project team, reflection is also important for project leader, since it helps to understand uncertainties, behaviour of others, and self-improved as leaders (Ollia, 2002). Bass and Avolio (1994) suggested that transformational leadership, which also emphasizes on leader reflection, would encourage his/her follower's efforts on innovativeness and be creative by questioning assumptions, and to solve old situations in new methods.


Refactoring- This practice engages continuous improvement based on restructuring, and simplifying project processes, which will generate creative actions and ideas.

Pair programming-This practice requires two programmers working together at one computer to work. In this situation, as the communication between team members has been increased.

On-site customer-This practice include real user in the team, which is outside the project. In this way, when team members work with the real user, team members get more accurate information of what the client wants and they might be impacted by the creative and new thoughts from client. Therefore, satisfying products or service to clients can be provided, because creative ideas and actions being taken.When team member works with client and they discuss about how to improve and reach customer's aims and requirements, creatives ideas might be created. Therefore, brain storming will be likely encourage creative actions to address practical problems.

Whole Team-By doing this, it allows teams being formatted from different functions. For example, team members could be from financial department, procurement department, human resource department and public relationship department etc. Hence, creative ideas or actions could be seen because people from different functions own specific knowledge and skills. When these team members work together, they might tend to communicate from the dimension of their own functions, which encourages creativity thoughts. Although the size of team is maximum 12 people, such a cross-functional team could make the final delivery handed out to customers to be more sounded, as it contains considerations and improvements from professional perspectives.


Discussion
In a traditional view of creativity, it mainly focuses on generating new ideas and producing novel products through an innovative process based on the original process or starting point (Sternberg, 1998). Or according to Gurteen (1998), creativity most is just about new and creative ideas. Then, the ideas will turn into actions at the end if innovation is implemented.
However, in agile view of creativity, it emphasises that during the process of quality improvement, cross-functional teams are encouraged, also creative processes could be implemented in an internal environment, such as, pair programming.

Besides, agile creativity process also includes external creative activities to create agile values- it contains users or customers into their team, so that feedback and requirements of users or customers can be heard and the team can be responsible for change as soon as possible. In this way, users might help to develop innovative ideas and solutions.

Also, from an agile view of creativity, it requires refactoring, which means that it expects to see continuous improvement, by restructuring the process to make it simple.

Links from this KA to other KAs

This knowledge area links to Knowledge Management (KM) since KM involves the process of creating new knowledge and enriching knowledge as much as possible. So that experienced creative skills may contribute to KM through gathering knowledge. Besides, effective Project Communication Management and Project Collaboration Management can motivate the Creativity to a large extent, because they create an environment where people could cooperate and then generate much more novel ideas together. Commitment towards work can enhance the chances of creativity. Open information in the project environment can also improve the creativity in the project.


References


External links

http://ifipwg82.org/sites/ifipwg82.org/files/Ch9-12-Creativity%20in%20AGILE%20Systems%20development-final.pdf Creativity in Agile Systems development: A Leterature Review
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creativity Wikipedia definition of creativity
http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-3-540-73101-6_24 Enhancing Creativity In Agile Software Teams
http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=836987&show=abstract Innovation and Creativity in Organisations: a review of the implications for training and development