Constraint management


Constraints are the conditions, circumstance or event that restricts and limit project execution (Newbold,1998). However, all the project constraints such as cost, time and quality must be identify and incorporate into project plan this will determine the success or failure of the project. Nevertheless, there are other constraints in project management, but this report will be discussing management time, cost and quality in project development relating these constraints with the agile principles, value and practices to ensure effective demonstration time, cost and quality during application of agile methodology.
  • Project Time Management: Project time management is the processes that requires to completion of a project at define time in the contract document (PMBOK,2004). This implies that a project shall be executed at a given time as agreed in the contract document.
  • Project Cost Management: Project cost management is a process of planning, controlling, budgeting and estimating costs so that project can be completed within the approved budget (PMBOK,2004). This shows how important it is to manage cost in project in order to avoid conflict as result of excessive cost escalation.

Project Quality Management: Project Quality Management is a process used by organisation that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfies the needs for which it was undertaken (PMBOK,2004),

Agile values

  • XP Value
The three XP values that will be discuss in this report include communication and customers collaboration (Sutherland,1993).
  • Communication
Communication between the customer and the product developer are highly required in order for effective management of project constraints. However, communication will also enable the stakeholders to understand each other and build good relationship to ensure successful delivery.
  • Customer collaboration
The customer collaboration makes it easier for both the customer and developer to understand best process to manage time, cost and quality. However, since the product owner is actively involved in negotiation of change. This will enhance understanding and implement of change without complex.
  • Agile manifesto value
The agile manifesto value that is essential to constrain management includes individual and interaction, and responding to change over following plan.
  • Individual and interaction
This will enable continuous integration and pair programming ensuring customer need are me within time, cost and quality.
  • Responding to change over following a plan
These methodologies seek for customer feedback before progression to ensure that the customer's business needs are met within time, cost and budget. However, this could enable good relationships during and after the business.
Therefore, XP and the agile manifesto value will help the customer and the business developer to effectively manage time, cost and required.

Agile principles

  • Agile manifesto principle:
The highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable product (Cubric,2013). However, since the customer is involve throughout the product development managing cost, time and quality will be more easier because quality delivery is the duty of every one in agile as a result of customer collaboration.
In addition, agile process promotes sustainable development, which means that the sponsors, developer and user should be able to uphold a constant pace indefinitely. This implies that constrains of a product development should be justifiable within the stakeholders in order to achieve the business value in the end that include cost, quality and time as required.
  • XP principle
The XP principles that are connected to constraint management include incremental change and quality.
  • Incremental change
The customer is involved in any change throughout the product development process; therefore, management of time, cost and quality is dependent on both customer and the product developer in order to justify the business value.
  • Quality
Quality is one of the highest priorities in agile principle, customers collaboration will make quality achieve easier. However, user stories is used to capture the customer requirement and improved in each iterations. Therefore, quality in agile is also responsibility of every one.

Agile practices

  • XP practices
All XPs practices are essential to agile practice in order to manage project constraints (time, cost and quality). However, this discussion is limited to planning game, collective ownership and re-factoring.

  • Planning Game: Planning XP games break the problem into a deposit of user stories and determines the scope of the release/iteration using business priorities and technical estimation that is needed. This entails that time, cost and quality will be effectively manage because release/iteration determines cost and estimated time of the project.
  • Collective ownership: Collective ownership implies that both the customer and the developer is involved in the product development. Therefore, transparent is highly required to effectively manage time, cost and quality in agile practices.


In traditional project management milestone is use to determine the time that project starts and finishes as required in the contract document and specifications. However, this milestone according to PMBOK (2004) is a component of the project management plan and it is used in the schedule model of a project a project development. In addition, every project requires change because, necessary traditional project management methodology will make change difficult because it requires visiting a process, which could delay, the project .On the other hand, in agile the customer is involved which means they are aware of change and its implication. However, in agile XP and scrum would ensure it engaged the product owner and customer in each iteration that means product development would be more cost effective. The user stories will help to capture the requirement for cost estimation. In contrast, in the traditional project management methodology total cost of the project will be estimated from initial stage of the project .This implies that change will be difficult depending on the type of contract document used. Finally, quality can easily be achieved in agile compare to traditional because of customer’s collaboration. Therefore, this discussion have justify that constrain could be managed in agile more effectively compare to traditional project management.

Links from this KA to other KAs

The knowledge area that is linked to constrain management quality, time and cost management.
  • Project quality management: Project quality management is related to constrain management because quality planning, quality assurance and quality control must be managed to avoid conflict and ensure that customers needs are met.
  • Project time management: The project activity, schedule development, and schedule control are all constrains that could led to a project success or failure. Therefore, this activities and schedules development should be effectively managed and controlled irrespective of the methodology used.
  • Project cost management: Project cost management include managing cost estimating, cost budgeting and cost controlling.Nevertheless, this processes must be effectively control to avoid cost escalation or miss used of fund.


Cubric, M.(2013) Introducation to Agile Software Development (XP)[Powerpoint slide]7BSP1018. University of Hertfordshire. 10th Febuary 2013.
Newnold, R(1998) Project Management in the Fast Lane Applying the Theory of Constraints. APICS
Sutherland, J. (2012). Agile Manifesto [Online] Available at : [Assessed: 26 March 3013].
PMBOK (2004) Project Management Institute. A Guide to the Project Management Body Of Knowledge, 3rd edition