A, Kazyrevich source: http://codevanced.net/page/Talks-Distributed-Agile-Development.aspx
A, Kazyrevich source: http://codevanced.net/page/Talks-Distributed-Agile-Development.aspx

Alternative name(s)

Transform Management (Anderson & Anderson, 2010)
Change Control (Gonder, 2007)
Configuration Management (PMI, 2013)

Description

Change Management is a process that involves: 1. Identifying change or issues, 2. assessing the impact of the change on the project, 3. Communicate with the senior managers to approval the change and finally 4. to implement the change and continuously monitor the change through change control. Change management helps the project meet expectations of stakeholders and help the project achieve success. In order to achieve good result of change management, people management is a key element in this process (change management, 2011).

In a rapidly changing environment, the management of change is critical for the project. Adapting to change, controlling change, effecting change, a project can successfully adapt to change is the critical factor to ensure the project success (Rouse, 2010).
In order to improve the change management, the project manager should ensure effective communication because smooth communication is a part of effective management. The project should establish effective communication channels to make sure that change can be quick and agile response and take measures, furthermore, the project manager should guarantee give staff clear allocation of tasks (change management, 2011).
Additionally, the project manager should be proactive and adapt to changes, for instance, reducing/increasing costs, change requirement statement, employee involvement, keep good communication among internal staff and response strategy (Creasey, 2012).

Agile values

XP Values:
‍Individual and interaction over process and tools: Allowing individuals to contribute to the project or system. Giving the opportunity for individuals to contribute to the project rather than following a controlled process, will enhance creativity and the chance of developing an innovative product/system.

Customer collaboration over contract negotiation: The project from start to finish may involve several changes from the customers’ requirements. Collaborating with the customers will enable to effectively know theirs attitudes and needs and wants, as they make changes to their requirements.The project team will need to communicate with the customers to enable to understand and acquire the customer's changes and to respond to their changes in time.

Responding to change over following a plan: Managing changes is critical in the project, but if the project manager is only following a plan for the project, he/she may find it difficult to make changes to the project. Also, projects will indefinitely deviate from its original plan because of the inadequate information from the beginning of the project and due to the nature and complexity of the project environment. Based on plans, the project manager will need respond to changes quickly to guarantee the project meet customers’ expectations and for the project to be delivered as a success.

Agile principles

Agile Manifesto Principles:
Encourage emergence and self-organization: "The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams". When managing changes in agile, everyone is responsible and can make changes (collective ownership). This encourages, the team to cooperate and be part of the project. This reduces management control; in the traditional approach, change needs to be escalated to the project boards to make decisions. However, in agile, teams can self-mange and organise the project when issues arises; putting less constraint and control on the team.

XP Principles:
Feedback: This is crucial for learning and making changes and should be done frequently. Short iterations, Unit testing and daily scrum practices can be used to provide frequent and direct feedbacks from customers, developers and other stakeholders that are involved. Feedback enables the developers to make and adapt to changes quicker without having to interrupt the whole project/system.

Embracing change: Instead of planning against changes, the developers should adapt and quickly accept the change and progress onwards. For example, when the customer changes its requirements, the developers should develop these new requirements into their next iterations.


DSDM Principles:
Iterative-incremental development: Rather than the traditional approach of delivering a project or a whole deliverable product at the end of the project lifecycle, adopting an agile approach enables developers to work on multiple iterations incrementally, taking it step by step. This enables change to be made easily because if a change is made for an iteration, it will not affect the whole project progress or the whole system. But in the traditional approach if an issue occurs half way through the development of the project, the system will be interrupted and will be halted until the problem is fixed. Which eventually may lead to a delay in the project.


Agile practices

XP Practices:
User Stories: At the beginning of each iterations, developers, customers and users get together to implement user stories. The customer may add or remove requirements as the developer implements their stories and estimates each user stories. The developers can also requests change, if a problem is encountered with the requirements i.e. fixing and altering customers stories to make it feasible, as long as the changes are within the constraints of time and budget. Changes arise mostly from customers' (changes in their requirements). Therefore, User stories will be an effective practice where it provides an opportunity for both the customer and developers to be together to gather detailed requirements which will ensure customers know exactly what they want and need, reducing the vulnerability of customers' changing their requirements later in the project.


‍Short Iterations:‍ Working and releasing smaller iterations of the larger user stories (Moreira, 2010). So, working smaller iterations will enable to simplify the larger release plan. In this way, there will be a lot more smaller tasks than the traditional way of working. However, working in smaller short iterations gives a great advantage in terms of identifying errors/issues early and easily implementing change without too many changes in other iterations.The rule of thumb in agile is "the shorter the iterations, the better", in order to enable changes to be made quicker and easier (Krebs, 2009).

Refactoring/Incremental Design: Refactoring simply means improving the design of the existing code. i.e. Adding a functionality to the system/product. Refactoring allows you to make small changes incrementally if necessary to continually improve the system (quality). Refactoring emphasis continuous change; changes can be applied throughout the project, for example, an individual involved in the project would want to improve the design of a product to enhance the quality. It is all about improvement and enhancing the end product, in order to achieve higher customer satisfaction.

Scrum Practices:
Daily Scrum Meetings: Daily meetings is where the project team and project stakeholders come together, where the project team gives the status of the project and issues arising. This is a crucial practice to identify issues/problems early, and can be solved on the spot, where all the important stakeholders are present which have a say in the project. The project will have a set of alternative actions for the project, but the customer and/or executive (project board) will decide the course of action based on time, cost, and risk (impact on the project and the project outcome). This practice gives an opportunity for any stakeholders to raise changes by getting feedback from the client and other stakeholders involved. This is the first step of the change management process and is the key element in change management; before change occurs, the first process is to identify issues or change. And to do this, daily meetings will give the opportunity for all stakeholders to meet up and discuss the project progress, customers to raise changes etc.

Discussion

Agile principles, values and practices are all about steering and not controlling. Whereas, traditional or other structured methodologies are about controlling a project and controlling change, and where possible avoids change that impacts the project schedule and/or cost. For example in Prince2, there is a structured procedure to managing and controlling change; identifying issues, assessing the impacts of change, reporting to project board to approve change. The traditional approach is too focused on planning, but because projects are complex and becomes more dynamic, it fails to recognise or adapt to changes.

In an agile way of managing a project, change is welcomed in the project; in fact, project managers will look for changes in a project i.e. Collective code ownership; continuously improving the product or code at any time by anyone in the project. Agile creates more flexibility in managing projects and change compared to traditional methodology of managing a project. Agile is most applicable in development projects where uncertainty is high and requires the team to pursue multiple iterations as it progress towards its end goal.


Links from this KA to other KAs

Configuration Management:Configuration is part of the change management process. once changes has been made, any deliverables will need to be updated.
Configuration refers to updating changes; it is part of the change management process. When changes are made it needs to be documented and the project plan needs to be updated, so that everyone in the project can follow the plan and have a clear vision of what needs to be accomplished. Although, in agile, one of the values is 'responding to change over following a plan'.

Resistant Management: (Waddell & Sohal, 1998): Some stakeholders or commonly organisations are resistant to change, because of the culture (ways of doing things) or because of a plan, making changes will involve complex management of the project; making a change can involve making changes to several elements of the project baseline i.e. people, budget, organisational structure. Therefore, before we make changes, we must first influence the stakeholders or organisation to change, by educating them the benefits the changes has to the project and organisation.

Continuous Improvement: can also help project management to improve change process, having continuous improvement culture can help projects to adopt changes and manage those changes. Feedback can also help the project management team to adopt the change in a better way.


References:


Amber, S. W., & Lines, M. (2012). Disciplined Agile Delivery (DAD): A Practitioner's Guide to Agile Software Delivery in the Enterprise . Boston : Pearson Education, Inc .

Anderson, D., & Anderson, L. A. (2010). Beyond Change Management: How To Achieve Breakthrough Results Through Conscious Change Leadership . San Francisco : Pfeiffer.

Gonder, H. (2007, December 3). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. Project Management Institute: Available at: http://www.pmi-muc.de/Vortraege/20071203/CM-PMBOK-20.pdf [Accessed: February 28, 2013]

Krebs, J. (2009). Agile Portfolio Management. Portland: Microsoft Press.

Moreira , M. (2010). Adapting Configuration Management for Agile Teams; Balancing Sustainability and Speed . West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons Ltd .

PMI. (2013). Configuration Management. Retrieved February 28, 2013, from Project Management Institute, Inc : http://www.pmi.org/Knowledge-Center/Knowledge-Shelf/Configuration-Management.aspx

Waddell, D., & Sohal, A. (1998). Resistance: a constructive tool for change management . Journal of Management History, 36 (8), 543-548.


External links

http://www.apm.org.uk/sites/default/files/Bok%20Definitions.pdf - APM BoK Change Management

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